Promoting latrine use in Karnataka, India using the Risks, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities and Self-regulation approach to behaviour change

Publication Details

3ie Funded Evaluation, TW14.1010 A link to the completed study will appear here when available.

Max Friedrich, Arundati Muralidharan, VR Raman, Hans Mosler
Institutional affiliations
None specified
Grant-holding institution
None specified
South Asia
Water and Sanitation
None specified
Gender analysis
None specified
Gender analysis
Equity Focus
None specified
Evaluation design
Mixed Methods
Ongoing 3ie Funded Studies
3ie Funding Window
Promoting Latrine Use in Rural India


This study assesses the impact of a behaviour change intervention using  the Risks, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities and Self-regulation (RANAS) approach for improving latrine use in the context of India’s sanitation campaign.


In India around 52.1 per cent of the rural population practises open defecation. The Swachh Bharat Mission’s (Clean India Mission) explicit agenda is to make India open defecation free by 2 October 2019.

The study aims to generate evidence on the impact of a behaviour change intervention using RANAS approach on increasing latrine use in Raichur district, Karnataka.

Research questions

  1. Do the interventions increase latrine use of households?
  2. What are the mechanisms and behavioural factors that influence the impact of the interventions?
  3. Does the interventions increase safe disposal of child faeces?


Intervention design

This evaluation assesses the impact of four intervention strategies that will be implemented over eight weeks in each intervention village. The four components include:

  1. Community meetings to discuss the benefits of latrine use, costs of open defecation and create a personal norm for latrine use by linking latrine use to pride and leadership.
  2. Household visit including encouragement for public commitment through a family photo, instruction poster for correct latrine use and cleaning, morning routine planning and reminder stickers on tumblers used for anal cleansing.
  3. Follow-up communication through mobile phones including a pictorial SMS reminder to be sent early in the morning and one phone call to individually discuss encountered barriers to latrine use and strategies to overcome them.
  4. Parents meetings in Anganwadi Centres for promotion of safe handling of child faeces by creating awareness of risks and disgust associated with unsafe disposal, linking safe disposal to happy children and mothers and prompting mothers to agree on a behavioural contract.

Theory of change

The RANAS model provides the theoretical core to the project’s theory of change. The model assumes that behaviour change is achieved through changing psychosocial factors, which steer target behaviour.

Evaluation design

This study uses a stratified cluster-randomised controlled trial to evaluate the developed behaviour change interventions, where households are the units of observation. Additionally, process monitoring of the campaign will be carried out by collecting qualitative data on the perception of the interventions.

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