Interventions for improving learning outcomes and access to education in low- and middleincome countries: a systematic review
3ie Systematic review 24, 2015
This systematic review by Snilstveit and colleagues examines the evidence on the effects of interventions to improve school participation and learning outcomes. It also identifies process, implementation and contextual factors explaining intervention success and failure. The authors find that programmes typically improve either school participation or learning outcomes, but not both. Cash transfer programmes have the largest and most consistent positive effects on school participation outcomes, but they do not typically improve learning outcomes. Structured pedagogy has the largest and most consistent positive effects on learning outcomes. Studies that measure participation outcomes do not suggest positive effects on learning. The authors identify a range of other promising interventions, including community-based monitoring, low-cost private schools, new schools and infrastructure, school feeding, merit-based scholarships, extra time in school and remedial education.