Water, sanitation and hygiene

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3ie’s has two major evidence programmes that support the generation and use of high-quality evidence for informing decision-making in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector (WASH).

To know more about how we are contributing to the WASH sector, download our brochure here.

For more information, please write to info@3ieimpact.org. To receive alerts about call for proposals, please sign up here.

Related content

What factors affect sustained adoption of safe water, hygiene and sanitation technologies?

Systematic review summary 3ie 2015
Safe water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) behaviours, such as treating drinking water, washing hands at key times or using a latrine rather than defecating in open spaces, are cornerstones of building strong, healthy communities and reducing mortality due to diarrhoea and other preventable diseases. Many studies have shown the health benefits of WASH, and factors that affect initial adoption of short-term WASH use. Few have assessed the determinants of long-term, sustained WASH practice.

Water, sanitation and hygiene interventions to combat childhood diarrhoea in developing countries

Systematic review 3ie 2009

This systematic review by Hugh Waddington, et al.

Willingness to pay for cleaner water in less developed countries: systematic review of experimental evidence

Systematic review 3ie 2012

Clair Null et al. examines studies that have used randomized approaches or even attempted to measure households' willingness to pay for cleaner water.

Effectiveness of a rural sanitation programme on diarrhoea, soil-transmitted helminth infection and malnutrition in India

Impact evaluation 3ie 2016
This report is based on a cluster-randomised evaluation conducted in 100 villages of Odisha to test the effectiveness of a rural sanitation intervention that was part of the India’s Total Sanitation Campaign.

Promoting latrine use in India

Scoping paper 3ie 2017

To inform 3ie’s Promoting Latrine Use in Rural India Thematic Window, we undertook a scoping study to identify the state of rigorous evidence in this area and to find out what decision makers, impl

What works in expanding the use of chlorine dispensers to purify water? Impact evidence from Kenya

Impact evaluation Brief 3ie 2015
According to the World Health Organization, diarrhoeal disease is the second leading cause of death among children under the age of five.

What works in expanding the use of chlorine dispensers to purify water? Impact evidence from Kenya

Impact evaluation Brief 3ie 2015
According to the World Health Organization, diarrhoeal disease is the second leading cause of death among children under the age of five.

Can disgust and shame lead to cleaner water and more handwashing? Impact evidence from Bangladesh

Impact evaluation Brief 3ie 2015
Improvements in water quality, sanitation and hygiene are associated with a reduction in risk of diarrhoea. However, treating water and regular handwashing with soap are not common practices in several low- and middle-income countries, including Bangladesh.

Does building more toilets stop the spread of disease? Impact evidence from India

Impact evaluation Brief 3ie 2015
Over one-third of the 2.5 billion people worldwide who do not have access to improved sanitation live in India. Nearly 69 per cent of the population practise open defecation. Typically, the government of India’s national sanitation schemes have focused on building more latrines for reducing open defecation, health-related illness and child malnutrition.

Water to save lives

Impact evaluation Brief 3ie 2009
Contaminated water is bad for health, resulting in thousands of premature deaths around the world each year. There is strong evidence that household water treatment has the biggest impact and is the most costeffective method in reducing risks of diarrhoea.

Running water, working toilets and safe hygiene practices

Impact evaluation Brief 3ie 2009
The world is falling behind its targets to improve people’s access to sanitation, with major health costs. There is strong evidence that both sanitation and hygiene interventions are highly effective in reducing risks of diarrhoea, however public health promotion appears more cost-effective.

Willingness to pay for cleaner water in less developed countries: systematic review of experimental evidence

Systematic review 3ie 2012

Clair Null et al. examines studies that have used randomized approaches or even attempted to measure households' willingness to pay for cleaner water.

Safe drinking water. Who is willing to pay the price?

Systematic review Brief 3ie 2012
Treating water can reduce the prevalence of diarrhoea by up to 70 percent. Although there are several inexpensive water treatment technologies available, statistics show that every 15 seconds a child dies due to waterborne diseases. Over 700 million people still lack access to safe drinking water.

Water, sanitation and hygiene interventions to combat childhood diarrhoea in developing countries

Systematic review 3ie 2009

This systematic review by Hugh Waddington, et al.

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There are no replication studies
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