This systematic review by Waddington, Sonnenfeld and colleagues examined high-quality evidence from 35 citizen engagement programmes in low- and middle-income countries. These programmes promoted citizen engagement in service delivery through four routes: participation, inclusion of marginalised groups, transparency and/or citizen efforts to ensure public service accountability; and collectively, PITA mechanisms. Interventions that improved direct engagement between service users and providers are often effective in stimulating active citizen engagement in service delivery, and realising improvements in access to services and service provision quality. However, in the absence of complementary interventions to address bottlenecks around service provider supply chains and service use, citizen engagement interventions alone may not improve key well-being outcomes for target communities. In addition, interventions to improve governance by increasing citizen pressures on politicians to hold service providers to account do not usually influence service delivery.
The authors of this systematic review assess the effects of gender-specific and transformative interventions on women’s empowerment and gender equality in fragile and conflict-affected states and their contribution to building peaceful and inclusive societies.
In this review, Sonnenfeld and colleagues synthesise evidence on programmes that promote intergroup social cohesion as a means of supporting sustainable peace in fragile communities in low- and middle-income countries.
In this review, Moore and colleagues synthesise available evidence on the effectiveness of electricity interventions on socio-economic outcomes for households, firms and communities in low- and middle- income countries.
This review by Snilsveit and colleagues examines evidence from 18 economic incentives-based payment for environmental services programmes to understand the effectiveness on environmental and socio-economic outcomes.