Incentives for climate mitigation in the land use sector – the effects of payment for environmental services (PES) on environmental and socio-economic outcomes in low- and middle-income countries: a mixed-method systematic review
3ie Systematic review 44, 2019
Birte Snilstveit, Jennifer Stevenson, Laurenz Langer, Natalie da Silva, Zafeer Rabath, Promise Nduku, Joshua Polanin, Ian Shemilt, John Eyers and Paul J Ferraro
Snilsveit and colleagues examine evidence from 18 economic incentives-based payment for environmental services programmes to understand the effectiveness on environmental and socio-economic outcomes. The meta-analyses suggest they may increase household incomes, reduce deforestation, improve forest cover, and improve environmental outcomes substantially in some contexts. However, the findings are based on evidence of low or very low quality and need to be interpreted with caution. The authors identified several context, design and implementation factors that can influence the programmes’ effectiveness, including careful targeting of programme participants, their full participation, and the need for strong government structures.
The authors of this systematic review assess the effects of gender-specific and transformative interventions on women’s empowerment and gender equality in fragile and conflict-affected states and their contribution to building peaceful and inclusive societies.
In this review, Sonnenfeld and colleagues synthesise evidence on programmes that promote intergroup social cohesion as a means of supporting sustainable peace in fragile communities in low- and middle-income countries.
In this review, Moore and colleagues synthesise available evidence on the effectiveness of electricity interventions on socio-economic outcomes for households, firms and communities in low- and middle- income countries.