Certification schemes set and monitor voluntary standards to make agricultural production socially sustainable and agricultural trade fairer for producers and workers. The review summarises findings from 43 quantitative studies and 136 qualitative studies. There is limited evidence on their effects on a range of intermediate and final socioeconomic outcomes for agricultural producers and wage workers. There are positive effects on prices. But workers’ wages do not seem to benefit from the schemes. Income from the sale of produce is higher for certified farmers, but overall household income is not. Context matters substantially for the causal chain between CS interventions and well-being. Simpler programmes adapted to local context may be more effective.
The authors of this systematic review assess the effects of gender-specific and transformative interventions on women’s empowerment and gender equality in fragile and conflict-affected states and their contribution to building peaceful and inclusive societies.
In this review, Sonnenfeld and colleagues synthesise evidence on programmes that promote intergroup social cohesion as a means of supporting sustainable peace in fragile communities in low- and middle-income countries.
In this review, Moore and colleagues synthesise available evidence on the effectiveness of electricity interventions on socio-economic outcomes for households, firms and communities in low- and middle- income countries.
This review by Snilsveit and colleagues examines evidence from 18 economic incentives-based payment for environmental services programmes to understand the effectiveness on environmental and socio-economic outcomes.