Systematic review 38

The effectiveness of contract farming in improving smallholder income and food security in low- and middle-income countries: a mixed-method systematic review

Systematic review 38

Giel Ton, Sam Desiere, Wyste Vellema, Sophia Weituschat and Marijke D’Haese

This systematic review by Ton and colleagues examines the effectiveness of contract farming, a common means of sourcing farm produce from smallholder farmers in low- and middle-income countries. The review suggests that farm income improves substantially, as does household income, although to a lesser extent. However, the true effect of contract farming is lower, due to 'survivor bias' - that is, the only evidence available is from successfully completed contracts. Hence, more prospective studies are needed that examine the effects of contract farming interventions from inception onwards. Impact evaluations also need to collect data on food security outcomes, as these outcomes are presently available in only one study included in the review. 

Impact of financial inclusion in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review of reviews

Impact of financial inclusion in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review of reviews

Systematic review 3ie 2019
This systematic review by Duvendack and Mader assessed the evidence on economic, social, behavioural and gender-related outcomes from financial inclusion interventions.

SR40

Vocational and business training to improve women’s labour market outcomes in low- and middle-income countries

Systematic review 3ie 2018

This systematic review by Chinen and colleagues examined the effects on employment, income, sales, and profits.

SR41

Agricultural input subsidies for improving productivity, farm income, consumer welfare and wider growth in low- and middle-income countries A systematic review

Systematic review 3ie 2018

This systematic review by Hemming and colleagues examined the effectiveness of agricultural input subsidies.

Systematic review 12

Services for street-connected children and young people in low- and middle-income countries: a thematic synthesis

Systematic review 3ie 2014

This systematic review by Coren and colleagues examines the effect of interventions that promote reintegration and reduce harmful behaviour among street-connected children and young people (SCCYP).

Systematic review 17

Payment for environmental services for reducing deforestation and poverty in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

Systematic review 3ie 2015

The systematic review by Samii and colleagues examines the evidence on the effects of payment for environmental services (PES) on deforestation and poverty outcomes.