Women-owned collective enterprises are seen as vehicles for promoting economic empowerment. To assess how collective enterprise-based interventions can lead to empowerment, it's important to understand the pathways to change. The authors of this paper examine these pathways and provide a framework that can guide decision-makers, practitioners, and researchers on what inputs, outputs and outcomes should be considered for designing, monitoring and evaluating a program similar to 3ie's Swashakt program.
This paper presents a unifying framework for understanding the impact of India’s National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM) on livelihoods and social outcomes. It derives key insight from the literature on economic growth. This paper is part of our ongoing Rural India Livelihoods Program supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
The authors of this report present findings of a rapid evidence assessment on the effects of democracy and freedom interventions in democratic backsliding contexts. This report was commissioned by the United Kingdom’s Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO).
This paper summarizes the findings of a learning study on the processes and lessons from recent efforts of the Odisha, Tamil Nadu and Telangana governments to improve sanitation services and provide employment opportunities to urban collectives through fecal sludge management, and operation and maintenance of community and public toilets.